Choose a highly visible leader, someone you admire and would like to emulate. You will be looking to examine a situation when a leader’s cultural adaptation, cultural intelligence, ethics, and perhaps even moral and values have been tested and applying his/her actions to your own, perhaps developing, leadership style.

Vogelgesang, G., Clapp-Smith, R. Palmer, N. (2009). The Role of Authentic Leadership and Cultural Intelligence in Cross-Cultural Contexts: An Objectivist Perspective. International Journal of Leadership Studies, 5(2), 102-117.  Retrieved from:

Choose a highly visible leader, someone you admire and would like to emulate.  You will be looking to examine a situation when a leader’s cultural adaptation, cultural intelligence, ethics, and perhaps even moral and values have been tested and applying his/her actions to your own, perhaps developing, leadership style.

 Consider the four factors of Authentic Leadership; discuss how the leader rates in each of these areas.  Also consider the issues brought up in the reading for this unit, particularly ethics and personal values.  View the actions of the leader through multiple lenses.  Based on the cultural situation that was discussed above, describe how the leader’s rating was impacted by the way the situation was handled. Include whether their behavior was favorable or not.

Why is this leader someone you admire?  As you examined this leader against the four factors of Authentic Leadership, did he or she rate as highly as you thought?   Look at this exercise and who you want to be as a leader — where do these things converge?

Submit a 2-paper that both demonstrates that you understand adaptive leadership and is also reflective in nature. If you use any sources, be sure to cite them using APA format. 

It is bit difficult to find a highly visible leader who is not a politician, but I chose Bill Gates, founder of Microsoft. The person who did phenomenal job as a business leader and now as a philanthropist saving thousands of lives. Bill Gates travels all around the world, so of course he interacts with people from different cultural background. In philanthropy it is more difficult to track progress, since there are no shareholder or board to report to. Most this work actually happen in countries in Africa and India, China, Europe and Middle Eastern countries. After leading a multinational company from front, Bill and Melinda Gates foundation is another work of art.

I came to know about Bill Gates initiative in a book called “Snowball”, the book was depicting relationship between Warren Buffet and Bill Gates. And I got to know how Bill Gates is running this multinational philanthropic work like a non-profit business.

As an entrepreneur, Bill Gates is focused on maximum return on investment, in this case, his return is saving lives. So he wants to invest in project that is going change maximum lives. Coming back to our topic, I believe Bill Gates shown great cultural intelligence when he was building the team he has who run this organization. Every region the organization operates in, Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation has office there. Since I am originally from India, and I got some information how well this organization did fighting HIV, or vaccinating children, even working on water problems in villages where water is a scares resource. This organization has partnered up with local government and volunteers to tackle such problems.

We can see how focus Bill Gates was. He did not really care about losing control that much, he focused on how he could help more people or reach more people. And he did it through partnering up with smaller volunteers group who actually knows the region, understands the problem and can help solve the problems. 

But then, how did he do balanced processing? The foundation, does not just give money away. Before investing in any project, the team working on ground has to show that the project is feasible and progress on the work they are doing. After evaluating the progress and impact then the decision of make investment happens. So we can see how this follows balanced process. I personally do not know details, but as I have read this organization is extensively using technology to measure the progress. Given Mr. Gates’s background which seems very probable. More details can be found on this here at

Although Bill and Melinda Gates runs this organization, but there is a relational transparency. The organization has decentralized leadership to move things faster and in more transparent way. Here is the full information about the leadership team

Having such a corporate structure ensures that no decision is taken autocratically, there is a place for discussion before taking any decision. Although, all are their decisions are around how many lives can they impact and make better.

Finally the last thing is moral perspective. Especially in philanthropy there is a huge chance of corruption. Coming from Microsoft, we can expect great ethics from him. And we can see how he have shown his ethics and morals in this. He does not giveaway his money just for anything. He has a strict process of selecting a project. Following that strict process eliminates any potential bad actor and Bill Gates can still stick to his main goal which saving maximum lives possible.

I admire Bill Gates because he made computers usable by everyone, in every corner of this planet. And now stepping out from his corporate shoes he is still saving the planet from deadly diseases and solving problems such as water crisis.

I think he is perfect example of authentic leader. After I examined him against the four factors of authentic leadership. I absolutely want Bill Gates to continue the great work he is doing as a leader.  

References –

Retrieved on 10/30/2018. Retrieved from

Retrieved on 10/30/2018. Retrieved from

Discuss how the four areas of cultural intelligence aid a leader in understanding culture as well as intercultural efforts.

  • Discuss how the four areas of cultural intelligence aid a leader in understanding culture as well as intercultural efforts.
  • Determine how a leader must reframe their thinking when interacting with employees of different cultures.
  • Examine the different methods a leader can utilize adaptive work to adjust his/her thinking.
  • How can leaders demonstrate interdependence when while dealing with diverse cultures?
  • Discuss how being culturally conscious is important to the success of a leader.

Discuss how the four areas of cultural intelligence aid a leader in understanding culture as well as intercultural efforts.

For a leader understanding other cultures is absolutely essential. In a global environment where we all are interacting with people from different cultures, if we do not have cultural intelligence, then we might not be able to develop better interpersonal relationships. Now, question is how cultural intelligence helps us? We have read over last few weeks, how developing cultural intelligence means letting go stereotyping and generalization, so cultural intelligence helps us reframe. It motivates us to learn and understand about the changed environment or people who are not from our culture and then adapt to the new situation. To understand a different culture, thinking is another critical area, keeping an open mind and asking the right question needs the thinking that cultural intelligence helps us develop. Finally, we all know by now, how important it is to be mindful, before one can understand the differences, the person needs to recognize the differences. Active listening, observing helps one notice things. Mentoring or training can help to understand the culture better. Then the leader still have to get motivated and change behavior, in every step the leader has to make conscious effort. So consciousness is another integral part or cultural intelligence.

Determine how a leader must reframe their thinking when interacting with employees of different cultures.

At work when a leader interacts someone from Asia, someone from Europe and someone from Latin America, s/he will be able to understand each of them have different way of looking at thing. And the leader would need cultural intelligence to change perspective, which is like a tool to understand each person (Bolman and Deal,2008). Any leader should reframe when he or she is interacting with someone from a different cultural background. Using cultural intelligence the leader should determine the differences first. Then, the leader should find motivation to change behavior. Finding motivation might mean realizing how important it is for the organization to be able to work with people from different cultural background. One way the leader can do to reframe is, s/he ask a question to self “why do you need this relation to work and how will be benefit personal or organizational goal?”

Examine the different methods a leader can utilize adaptive work to adjust his/her thinking.

A leader will have his or her own sets of beliefs and values. But leaders should be cognizant about the fact that, team members, clients or others at work might have a different set of belief or values, and those might be conflicting with his or her own values.

The leader has to constantly monitor his or her own personal values. Adaptive work requires to be aware of reality and understanding values of others and own personal values (Heifetz,1994, p.31.). When the leader find conflicting values, s/he must stay objective and focus on the goal, and adapt to the situation to pursue organization / personal goals.

How can leaders demonstrate interdependence when while dealing with diverse cultures?

In todays’ world practically most of the companies are connected via web. And they are part of some supply chain. Even if we talk about a smaller business, such as Chipotle Mexican Grill, we can notice how the people working there are dependent on each other. Every person has a defined role and responsibility and s/he needs to do it in order to the next person can start his or her work. Likewise in every industry we are there are interdependencies.

Leaders will have to remain objective and focus on his or her personal or organizational goal. Understand the cultural differences, adapt to the situation and remain cognizant of the fact that why working with people from different cultural background is essential. Focusing on the job at hand is more important than focusing on cultural differences.

Discuss how being culturally conscious is important to the success of a leader.

To expand our thoughts from self to group level, we need mindfulness or consciousness. Leader needs to understand “what the team needs” rather than focusing on “what I need”. To be aware of everyone in the team, to be mindful about the differences and the goal, the leader needs to be conscious. Even, to make sure that the leader has his or her eyes on goal all the time, he needs to be conscious, otherwise there is a chance where he or she drifts of to what he or she needs from what the team needs.


Bolman, L. G., & Deal, T. E. (2008). Reframing organizations: Artistry, choice, and

leadership (4th ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Heifetz, R. (1994). Leadership without easy answers. Boston, MA: Harvard University


Discuss how these how features work together in conjunction with Authentic Leadership. 

Discuss how these how features work together in conjunction with Authentic Leadership. 

In today’s global world where people often have to travel to a different country for work or they have to work in teams where he finds himself among people from different cultures, being culturally intelligent is absolutely essential. People from different cultural backgrounds behave differently, culturally intelligent managers need to know how to function in a culturally diverse situation.   

In the past few weeks, we have learned that cultural intelligence has the following components

·       metacognitive and cognitive CQ

·       motivational CQ, and behavioral CQ (Ng & Earley, 2006)

Authentic leadership which goes hand in hand with CQ, has four components:

Self-awareness, balanced processing, relational transparency, and an internalized moral/ethical perspective. These can be broken down into cognitive, motivational, and active processes and they can work together with cultural intelligence, allowing a leader to attain a morally grounded cultural adaptation in any cultural setting.

When we talk about the metacognitive and cognitive CQ, we can see how self-awareness is a part of these. With cognitive CQ, one acquires information about his or her surroundings, about the differences. Metacognitive CQ is about how the person processes the information. As part of cognitive CQ the person can notice the difference in behavior, as part of metacognitive CQ, the person processes the information or tries to understand it better. Being self-aware which is a second cognitive component, allows leaders to move beyond their ego and misconceptions about themselves (Kernis, 2003)

Motivational processes are about having motivation for the leaders to learn something, in this case being culturally intelligent. In case of an authentic leader, the person usually chooses what is ethically and morally right, since for an authentic leader moral, values self-concept and self-worth are very important (Rest, Narvaez, Bebeau, & Thoma, 1999, p. 101). So, the reason behind learning about other cultures, developing cultural intelligence to deal with different people within the team or outside team from different cultural background is simple for authentic leaders. They want to do what is right, hence they learn to adapt.

Behavioral processes are how the authentic leader behaves or adapt and learn to beave in the changed environment. First, the leader recognizes the changed environment, then he understands what needs to change and why. Since he or she is willing to adapt, they change their behavior per the environment.

From the perspective of a leader within your organization, focus on how each feature specifically interacts with cultural intelligence and authentic leadership.    

            I have always worked for multinational companies working in different geographies. Since I am from India, I understand Indian people better than others. So, I will refer to Indian manager, what I have noticed they do when they are here in the USA.      

            Indian society has a hierarchy and as a result, there is an expectation from the leaders that they will not be questioned. But when they come over here, they face a different reality, and to be honest, in past, I have noticed many managers struggling to manage their teams, the simply could not grasp the cultural change. Now I understand they were simply not culturally intelligent and they could not adapt. They expected the employees to listen to them, work extra-long hours or weekends, but when those things did not happen, I could see the frustration in them. But this is mostly true for managers who did not develop cultural intelligence, they did not adapt or change their behavior and often failed as leaders.

In my current organization, I see leaders who are from India but culturally intelligent. They have adapted as per the culture over here. But I have a feeling, overall organizational values, principle, culture play a big role in how individual leaders would adapt.  As a matter of fact, I think the organizational policy plays an important role too, to make sure the employees are treated fairly regardless of the leader is culturally intelligent or not.

Global leaders need to be able to nimbly adapt to different situations, adjusting quickly.  How does having high cultural intelligence allow a leader to adapt to novel situations?

            In any large organization, there are people working from a different cultural background. And in some multinational organizations leaders often get opportunities in different geographies. So, being in a leadership role it is eminent that the leader will be dealing with people from different cultures. And it is essential for leaders to develop CQ. Cultural intelligence is the ability to interact effectively with culturally different people learn to behave appropriately and adapt in a new cultural setting (Thomas, 2006, p. 80).

            As I have already mentioned that I have seen leaders fail in their job who could not adopt because they did not develop cultural intelligence. So, to be successful as a leader, a leader needs to lead the team and to lead effectively, the leader has to understand and motivate the team to accomplish goals. So, be it understanding the team members or having self-efficacy or adapting in new cultural setup, a leader must have high cultural intelligence. Because no organization gives indefinite time to adapt, as every project comes with a deadline and goals.


Ng, K. Y., & Earley, C. P. (2006). Culture + intelligence: Old constructs, new frontiers. Group & Organization Management, 31(1), 4-19.

Kernis, M. H. (2003). Toward a conceptualization of optimal self-esteem. Psychological Inquiry, 14, 1-26.

Rest, J. R., Narvaez, D., Bebeau, M. J., & Thoma, S. J. (1999). Postcoventional moral thinking: A neo-Kohlbergian approach. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Thomas, D. C. (2006). Domain and development of cultural intelligence: The importance of mindfulness. Group & Organization Management, 31(1), 78-99.

Self-Concept Case Study

Self-Concept Case Study


Jack, a leader in major hospital, supports his team. Jack has lost focus from his health. But in his mind he believes he was healthy, so when his doctor said his cholesterol problem was chronic in nature and he will have to take medication for life, he was not ready to accept. We will explore more on this here.

Keywords:  cultural intelligence,

What actions by Jack suggest his self-esteem may be negatively impacted by his diagnosis?

            Jack is 36 years old and he is a leader in a hospital. He supports his team and helps them reach their goals. Eating healthy and exercise was his priority but due to professional reason, his focus on health has declined. According to Jack’s primary care doctor thinks he has a chronic problem of cholesterol and needs lifelong treatment. And he prescribed Jack medications to treat it, while Jack sat there in disbelief.

            After leaving the doctor’s office Jack tears the prescription and throws the paper in the trash, this action shows us his self-esteem was negatively impacted by the diagnosis. Jack was aware of the fact that lately, he was not focusing on his health and his had family history, yet he tore up the prescription. In his mind, he was healthy, he was eating right and getting exercise, so he could not believe that he has a health problem that needs lifelong treatment. Cognitive dissonance refers an inner discomfort that arises when an individual holds two contradicting thoughts in mind simultaneously (Festinger, 1957). Clearly, Jack was holding contradicting thoughts in his mind.

What positive direction might Jack explore to help with the acceptance of his diagnosis?

            Jack did learn something new, which was contradicting with what he thought or believed, so he needs to adapt to the new situation. He needs to first accept the fact that what he believed was not right and he needs to change his behavior. In this case, going back to eating right and exercising and he should listen to his doctor. This change would need small positive changes, to begin with. Like maintaining a healthy diet, then getting exercise. If basketball is not possible he can join a gym or find another alternative. Starting to take the prescription drug will also be a change he needs.

 How can he motivate his team to get involved in the process?

            Jack is a leader. He needs to lead from the front. That means coming out of the denial mode and accepting the new reality and making changes in his own behavior. Jack needs to ask 3 questions and find answers for those.

Jack needs to know “What is changing?” – In this case, there is a need for a healthy diet and regular exercise. As a leader, Jack needs to make sure that his team understands this and they need to make these changes too.

“What will be different because of the change?” Jack lost his focus from health because of his professional commitments, but if he needs to go back to healthy eating and regular exercise, he will need to change some things at work, that might impact his team. They need to work together so that they can come up with a plan so that each one of the team and Jack gets exercise and right diet.

Who is going to lose what? Jack needs to figure out the answer to this question. I believe, Jack won’t be able to give so much time to all team members all the time, maybe he can make himself available on the phone, or he can leave instructions for the teammates to offset that. Jack needs to make sure his team does not feel abandoned and there is a plan in place to handle possible situations. 

Identify the potential causes in Jack disturbance of self-concept. 

            We see cognitive dissonance as Jack’s belief that he was healthy was challenged by the evidence and what his primary care doctor told him. And the element “healthy” was threatened in his self-confidence. Jack used to focus on health but lately due to professional reasons he could not, and then when he mentioned his cholesterol to his doctor, he said that Jack needed to take medication. It shook Jack’s cognitive dissonance and his self-concept was disturbed. 

How can the behaviors related to self-disclosure and time play a role in helping Jack to accept and live with his diagnosis?

            Jack can seek professional help. Although it is evident that he does not want to believe what his doctor told him, but as a culturally intelligent leader he needs to realize he needs to make changes in his behavior. So, he needs to accept what he found out about his health and then he has to self-disclose. He can find a good doctor or professional and seek his or her help.

            We came to know that Jack is so caught up at work that he is not being able to focus on his health. He is trying to support his team and help them achieve their goals. This is a clear issue of time management. Jack needs to set some boundaries with his team and he needs to focus on his health too. He can talk to the team and explain why he needs more time for himself, self-disclosing to the team and letting them know about his health condition. Or he can manage the time in another way he finds suitable. 

What role does communication play in Jack’s overall acceptance? 

            Jack’s team definitely depends on him, as we have found out that he supports them and helps them reach their goals. So, Jack does not want to distance them, rather he needs to be open and self-disclose and trust them with his own condition. So that the team understands why Jack needs time to invest in his own health. So, communication is key here, Jack can make them understand why he will not be able to support the way he was so far, yet not impacting the personal rapport he has with team members. 

As a leader, how can Jack engage his team in this new healthy lifestyle while respecting his privacy?

            Jack can create awareness and tell team members about adverse effects of stress, long hours. And they can change their behavior by taking small breaks and eating healthy. Leaders need to be adaptable, they need to think strategically, be mindful and to persevere. (Saylor, 2012, p.151). So Jack as a leader can encourage them to lead a healthy life and do the same along with them. As a leader, he can lead with example starting with making small changes in his own behavior and encourage team members to do the same.


Festinger, L. (1957). A theory of cognitive dissonance. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.

Saylor. (2012). Cultural Intelligence for Leaders. Saylor Academy: Creative Commons by-nc-sa 3.0.

Is cognitive dissonance ever good for an organization? For an individual?

Is cognitive dissonance ever good for an organization? For an individual?

As we learned this week in our reading, cognitive dissonance is the discomfort that arises when something that we believe is challenged.

  • Is cognitive dissonance ever good for an organization?  For an individual?
  • Based on this information, what are three specific things that a leader can do to minimize the impact/leverage the effect of cultural dissonance within an organization?   Include how leaders can assist both themselves and their employees in changing their behaviors.  How can the three questions related to changing behaviors impact the employees in a positive way? What approach can a leader take if he/she receives opposition related to changing behaviors?
  •  Is cognitive dissonance ever good for an organization?  For an individual?
  • Cognitive dissonance cannot be good for any organization ever. It happens when beliefs, ideas or behaviors contradict each other (Psychology Today, n.d.). But in an organization where this exists, a culturally intelligent manager can recognize cognitive dissonance and then take appropriate measures. But, if cognitive dissonance gets undetected and if it continues then the organization will have problems.
  •             For an individual, I believe there would be cognitive dissonance, and it won’t be good. We often grow up with some stereotyping and generalizations in our minds and that might come out as cognitive dissonance later in life at work. In a homogeneous work environment cognitive dissonance might not come out but if the person encounters something or someone who threatens his ideas or perceptions then it will not be good at all.
  •             But organizations or any person when encounter cognitive dissonance, they can implement and develop cultural intelligence, recognizing the reason behind the issue. For organizations, it is really important to take reactive measures so that they do not face such issues in the future.
  • Based on this information, what are three specific things that a leader can do to minimize the impact/leverage the effect of cultural dissonance within an organization?  
  •             In any organization where people from different values, beliefs or backgrounds come to work, the dissonance might occur since their values, beliefs may contract or vary. The differences arise because of generation differences, race or gender inequity, religion, disability or ability etc. So, there are many things leaders can do so employees can work on the differences when they face dissonance.
  •             Firstly, leaders need to recognize their blind spots first. One the leader understand her self-concept then the leader can help others recognize theirs. Leaders need to discuss the dissonance employees’ face. So employees can comfortably discuss the differences. Instead of feeling uncomfortable with diversity they can embrace the diversity and differences.
  •             2nd, Acknowledging the fact that there is a blind spot, then working on recognizing those and turning those dissonances into learning opportunities should be leaders’ priority. The leader should be aware that employees will try to stick to their own self-concept, beliefs. But the leader needs to get the employees to help to develop cultural intelligence. So the employees actually understand coworkers from a different background, believe better.
  •             3rd, leaders should develop a framework in their organization where every employee will be trained and made aware of their differences and they will be helped to improve their cultural intelligence. So that while they maintain their self-concept but does not feel threated by someone else’s self-concept.
  •   Include how leaders can assist both themselves and their employees in changing their behaviors. 
  •             Leaders need to change their behaviors first and start with something small. Small incremental changes lead to bigger changes.  But, leaders first need a reason to make the change. That is identifying blind spots is critical. Leaders and employees will have to let negative behavior go and replace that with positive behavior. Once blind spots are identified the leaders would understand why the change is needed, then they need to figure out what needs to be changed. The final evaluation would be about who loses what.
  •             Leaders will do the same for employees too. Help them find their blind spots, and tell what why they need the change. Then tell them what needs to change and who will lose what due to change. So, everyone’s expectations are well managed.
  •  How can the three questions related to changing behaviors impact the employees in a positive way?
  • First question – What is changing? Before implementing the change in the cultural intelligence one needs to be absolutely certain and understand what is not working. That will be the biggest motivation behind the change. And once it is understood what the change is, the person will have the conviction too
  • The second question is “what will be different because of the change?” Changing could be hard, but once something is changed, going back to the previous form might not be easy too. Hence leaders need to know what is going to be different. The outcome of the change becomes very important. Moreover, this can work as a goal too for the leaders so they get motivated to implement the change.
  •             The third question is” Who will lose what?” – Leaders should evaluate first that because of the change, how the belief will change or what behavior has to change and what those changes would mean for everyone. This would mean leader would be able to anticipate and prepare for the new changed scenario.
  • What approach can a leader take if he/she receives opposition related to changing behaviors?
  •             Leadership is not just about leading but about implementing changes too. And change often causes people to resist (Quast,2012). Moreover, in an organization the culture is developed based on goals, roles, values attitudes, practices, and assumptions, hence changing something is a really difficult challenge for leadership(Denning, 2011). Knowing this, I feel if or when leadership faces resistance, they should never feel that their authority is being challenged or worse, they should not lose confidence. Instead, they should directly talk to employees who are putting up the resistance. Chances are those employees are scared of the change or suffering from uncertainty. As leaders, it is our responsibility to assure those employees, give them more information about, why the change is necessary, what will change and because of the change what are the things the organization will have to let go. Depending on the change they may or may not agree with everything, but one thing for sure that they will have certainty with the information, and with some pursuance and time the resistance might fade away and get replaced with acceptance too.
  • So in a nutshell, the leader should be open and transparent, providing as much as information possible, answering questions, clearing doubts and explaining why the change is required, what will change, who will lose out and why. Finally the end goal and benefits is very important so everyone sees the reason of their temporary sacrifices or the reason they will have to let go of somethings. 


Psychology Today. Retrieved on 10/15/2018. Retrieved from

Quast Lisa (November, 2012). Overcome The 5 Main Reasons People Resist Change. Retrieve from

Denning, Steve (July,2011). How Do You Change An Organizational Culture? Retrieved from

Critical Incident Analysis Case Study


In this paper we will discuss a situation that happened because of cultural differences. We will analyze and discuss how to avoid the situation. We will find the best suited framework that fits the situation. Then we will discuss about what I would differently if I were the manager.

Keywords:  cultural intelligence,

Describe what essentially occurred, and how a culturally sensitive reaction could have been achievable if you or someone you know had used CIA.

            One of my co-worker in Kolkata, India got an international assignment for a few months and got a transfer to the United States. I saw him back in Kolkata sooner than we were expecting him. We shared the same manager. So I asked my manager, why was he back so soon? I got to know, he was sent back, because he could not show up in time for meetings. Essentially he was late every morning for meetings.

            In India, getting late to work is not a critical offense (at least in the city where we were). So this coworker of mine, could not really understand that the culture was different and he probably thought it was ok to show up late for meetings. As a consequence after 3 strikes, he was sent back. The whole project faced a problem because this one employee could not understand the local culture and could not show up on time. He had to be replaced. And finding replacement, training him takes time. And that becomes a concern to meet the project deadline.

            We know about the event or circumstance that led to a critical incident. We understood the behavior of the agent and the outcome. Now let us consider the possible future outcomes if behaviors remain unchanged. That person’s career growth took a hit because he was unsuccessful in his assignment. And, possibly he would not be sent to any more foreign assignments. In case he goes out of the country assignments, and repeats the mistake, his career will take a hit again. And I think losing a job might be another possibility.

But in case the behavior change, the person might get foreign assignments where cultures are different and he would do just fine. Overall that will be the best outcome because the organization will benefit from it too. Sending an employee overseas is expensive and if the assignment fails the organization not only loses face but loses financially too.

Applying CIA, the organization had to make sure that the employee understood monochronic culture since he was from a polychronic culture. He had have undergone a cross-cultural training to understand basic cultural differences and what changes he had to make. They should have arranged someone overseas to assist him and mentor him for a while.

Look at the theories and suggestions in the readings regarding having success in cross-cultural settings and within your response, explain in detail what can specifically be done to ensure that these behaviors do not take place in the future.

            Before leaving his country the organization should have made sure that this person goes through some cultural training to understand what is expected. This cross-cultural training should have given him a realistic expectation regarding what is expected from him.

            And for the first 6 months, someone could have assisted him. Assist him to understand the culture. Like what time to come, how to come to work on time. What he is doing wrong or how it should be done, things like that.

Use one of the theoretical frameworks of cultural interpretation (Hofstede, Hall, etc.) presented in our readings and apply this approach to the situation.   

            Edward T. Hall in his 1976 theory described culture as an iceberg that has two main components, the internal and external. In order words, the visible or tangible and the invisible or intangible components (Constant Foreigner, 2013).Also Edward T. Hall found out the differences between polychronic and monochronic cultures. To a monochronic person, time is actually tangible and highly valuable while schedules are of extremely high importance, hence can sometimes be very stressful because of the time views (Duranti & Di Prata, 2009). Polychronic cultures could be said to be “multi-task,” in the sense that it loves doing quite a handful of tasks at the same time (The articulate CEO, n.d.). “Polychronic cultures view time as being more flexible because life isn’t entirely predictably-scheduling and being precise is seen as simply not that important” (Duranti & Di Prata, 2009). This case I have described, most probably fit into that framework. My co-worker was from a polychronic culture and he came to a monochronic culture. And, unfortunately, with his polyphonic mindset, he could not realize how important it was to be on time for the meetings in monochromic culture.

As a manager, how would you have handled that situation differently? What could you do as a manager to ensure that you are able to adapt to multiple cultures?

            As a manager, I would have made sure that every employee gets a cross-cultural training before any foreign assignment. Which would be tailor-made and will tell them specifically about the culture they are going to be in. This training material would be extensive, it will be a guideline about what is expected in the workplace.

            Then, I will make sure, this expat gets assistance for the first few months to settle down. Talking from personal experience, finding a commute in a new country becomes a big deal, so is to find a place to live. And in this specific case, if I were with the person, I would have asked him to find out why he was coming late. Maybe he was jet-lagged and could not wake up at the time or maybe he did not get a ride. I would have helped him with those issues.

            Coming to the second part of the question, as a manager first thing – I will try to learn the local language. So that I can overcome the communication barrier. Next, I will find out someone at work or through my contacts who have been to that country or culture and get as much as information from them. Then, I will try to get a cross-cultural training that will tell me what I need to know. Finally, I will work on my cultural intelligence skills. I will practice mindfulness, active listening, observing, so wherever I go, I would be able to adapt sooner.


Saylor Academy (2012). International Business. Creative Commons by-nc-sa 3.0

Constant Foreigner. (5 Jun 2013). Edward T. Hall’s Cultural Iceberg. Retrieved from

 Duranti, G. & Di Prata, O. (2009). Everything is about time: does it have the same meaning all over the world? Paper presented at PMI® Global Congress 2009—EMEA, Amsterdam, North Holland, The Netherlands. Newtown Square, PA: Project Management Institute.

Discuss one subjective and one objective dimension of culture from each level. Explain how leaders are challenged to pay attention to these dimensions. What is the outcome if they choose to ignore these dimensions?

Discuss one subjective and one objective dimension of culture from each level.  Explain how leaders are challenged to pay attention to these dimensions.  What is the outcome if they choose to ignore these dimensions?

From the top level of an iceberg, I would like to discuss the “Vision”. Speaking from my personal vantage point, the vision did not mean something grandiose to me ever. When I work in a project, vision means delivering the project successfully. So, I feel vision varies a lot when it is considered subjectively.

I think it is important to mention when I joined my current or previous company, we had to read the vision. I do realize, leaders often come up with the vision. They are not focused on one single project. The vision is for the whole organization, for each employee, where we want to be and how and may be why. Subjectively each employee in an organization has a defined role and they need to deliver to meet the goals. But on objective sense, as each employee perform their duties and reach their goals, the organization as a goal advances towards the goal the leaders have for it. For example, in our industry, we need to maintain a certain quality of the applications we deliver, before our organization could be considered for ISO standard. It was our leader’s vision to get ISO and Six Sigma complied. So, each of us had to goal to maintain the quality of each project we have in our organization. After working for years and maintaining quality our company got those certifications. Leaders had to pay attention to the vision objectively and then they realized the subjective part for each employee, so they planned and set the goal for each of us so we work towards achieving the vision.

If leaders decided to ignore either subjective or objective or both dimensions, then their won’t be any plan to achieve those visions. Leaders cannot ignore the subjective dimension, because in a growing organization when the new employees join in, they usually do not share the same vision. If the leaders decide to be just subjective and not objective, then it won’t be possible to think about the bigger picture, or in my organization’s case, think beyond the projects.

From 2nd level, I would like to talk about Policy. For our organization we have different policies such as travel and expense policy, relocation policy and there are tier specific policies. When you consider some of the policies subjectively, such as Manager and above get their cell phone bills reimbursed but employees do not, might seem unfair. And employees from different tiers might feel bad about these policies and might feel they do not have as good benefits as their seniors do.

But objectively, the organizations want to reward their top talents, with some extra perks they want to make sure that they do not lose the talents to competitors. Leaders should always promote meritocracy. As policies are there to treat employees who belong to the same tier equally without discriminating and also policies are like laws inside an organization which employees cannot violet. Which make sure that organization has a safe, healthy work environment for everyone.

I personally feel the policy is most important for every employee and leader for any organization. For example not disclosing your salary or performance appraisal to any co-worker or sexual harassment policy – I feel policy shapes culture within an organization. Leaders need to focus on policy to shape up the organizational culture. If leaders choose to ignore either or both dimensions of policy the organization can get into legal, ethical, operational problems ( Reference, n.d.).

From 3rd level, I would like to discuss feelings, which at least for me used to get hurt a lot when I was really new to the industry. And I know every new employee goes through that phase when they do not feel good about their yearly performance appraisal or yearly bonus and in some cases how their managers treat them. Feelings are very subjective. Some people are very sensitive and get hurt a lot. But as employees gather experience most of them learn not to take things personally.

Objectively, for leaders, it is crucial that they focus on the task at hands and focus on achieving the goal. So, a manager cannot only consider how employees would feel about his or her actions.

Now let us discuss, what happens in leaders ignores employees feeling subjective dimensions or objective dimension. In my personal experience,  I have seen leaders often choose to ignore subjective dimension of it and focus on objectivity because business comes first. But that is where leaders should work on mindfulness and start empathizing, otherwise, employees feel ignored and eventually, they leave. Ignoring objective dimension might mean the loss of business, so leaders should never do that.

How do leaders deal with a cross-cultural team that has both monochronic and polychronic cultures represented?  How does a leader deal with the team members who come from a different ‘time-based’ culture as him/herself?

Before I start answering, I just wanted to mention that I took the test and turns out I am more monochromic than polychromic. Saying that a leader has to be observant and mindful to understand who is monochromic and who is polychromic. Being a team leader myself, I can say, both type of employees can play a vital role. Especially in my industry (IT Services), you need people who will make sure that quality meets a certain standard and there are leads who usually perform many tasks, such as peer review along with his usual tasks. Moreover, they get pulled into many directions. Team members ask for guidance, managers ask for reports and so on. I believe leaders have to understand the cultures first then they will have to be placed in a role where his or her skills will be best utilized and beneficial for the organization.

A leader has to be culturally intelligent to understand the team members who come from a different ‘time-based’ culture. The leader can take help from a mentor, practice active listening, observing, mindfulness etc (MingJi, n.d.). A policy is a very good tool which is applicable to everyone in an organization that leader can use to standardize certain things. For example, if the employees are coming late to work or meetings, the leader can introduce them to the company policy. The leader has to guide them so they adopt the acceptable work culture. It is mostly local since these employees might be expats, so they will need to adapt to local culture while the leader has to make sure that he/ she informs the employees about the culture and tell them what is expected.


Retrieved on 10/7/2018. Retrieved from

Diana J. Wong MingJi (n.d.). International Cultural Differences. Retrieved from

Building a Multicultural Team Case Study


Kalia manages a culturally diverse team in a large organization. We will first explore the major issues we have in the case study. We will discuss Kalia’s self-Efficacy. We will explore how her self-efficacy does impacts her leadership. We will recommend Kalia at least ways to develop her cultural intelligence and self-efficacy. And finally we will make some suggestions to Kalia to make her team a culturally intelligent one.

Keywords: stereotyping, generalization, cultural intelligence, self-efficacy

How do you describe Kalia’s self-efficacy? Is she showing levels of high and/or low efficacy? Discuss how her behavior exhibits each level.

            Kalia has 8 employees working under her. 4 of them are Caucasian and other 4 are Hispanic, Asian, African and African- American. They come from different age groups and they have a different amount of experience. 2 of the employees are in the 20s, 2 are in their 30s, 3 are in their late 40s and the last one is in her late 50s. The younger employees have the least amount of work experience, which is around 2 years, most other have anywhere between 5 – 10 years and the senior most employee have 25 years of experience. Kalia has 15 years of experience in managing the team.

            The major issue is being from different cultural background Roberts is not very pleased with Ana who happens to be Hispanic and Margaret. Margaret is pretty senior, and when she offered to mentor Roberts, he rejected it saying she would not understand most probably because he does not consider to understand them. I am not entirely sure if Margarete had the different cultural background, as the case study does not explicitly say anything, but it definitely says that Margarete was senior to Roberts and she felt Roberts’s behavior was disrespectful.

            Kalia was aware of the tension among employees, especially she knew about Roberts’s feelings towards Ana. Kalia almost refused to take control as she wanted people to just get along and adapt to each other’s working style. There is one more important point we need to remember that her previous experience in resolving such issues is not very encouraging. But her current goal is to resolve these intercultural issues because she knows that a good leader would do so.

            Self-Efficacy is a foundational component of cultural intelligence. It is like self-confidence. Self-efficacy is the self- perception of one’s own ability to reach goals. Self-efficacy is our perception of our abilities to meet goals we have set for ourselves. (Saylor, 2012, p.96)  We see Kalia has the goal to resolve intercultural issues in her team but she has doubts over her own abilities to fulfill this goal, based on her past experience. Keeping these in mind it is difficult to conclude Kalia has high self-efficacy.

            Kalia has shown both high and low level of self-efficacy. She has set a goal to resolve the intercultural issue in a year and this time she is basically re-trying to resolve this issue since in past she did fail. So these are the indications of high self-efficacy.

But on the other hand, she has been a leader for 15 years, the youngest employee has 2 years of experience, so Kalia has known about these intercultural issues for a while and she did not take any action to resolve this issue. She expects employees to resolve the issue, so we see a tendency to avoid dealing with the problem and finally, she is not very confident of achieving her goal to resolve intercultural issues because she failed in past. These all indicate that she has a low level of self-efficacy.

How does Kalia’s self-efficacy impact her leadership?

            Kalia was aware of the intercultural issue but did not address this issue and wished that employees would learn or adapt to work with each other. Now that she sets a goal to resolve this issue, she is not sure if she would be able to resolve it. So, we can see how she is not a decisive leader or she does not take control of the situation, although she is aware what a leader should do, she is hesitant to do those things. Kalia’s self-efficacy makes her weak leader who is not confident or who does not lead from the front.

What strategies do you recommend to Kalia to help her improve her cultural intelligence and develop her self-efficacy? Discuss at least two specific development approach.

            Kalia should find a mentor who has experience in working with a similar cultural team and find out how she should manage such issues she is facing.

            Kalia needs to be an observer and an active listener for each employee. She needs to know more about each employee. So she gets to know them individually and understands the root cause of the intercultural issue. These will help Kali acquire the knowledge she would need.

As part of the build, she can develop a personal rapport with employees and make employees understand each other’s strength and what value each team member add and how their cultural background is relevant and valuable.

Kalia needs to contemplate on her own issues and how she can overcome issues such as not willing to get between intercultural issues. She needs to work with a mentor and find out how to be confident about handling such issues in the future.

So Kalia needs to find a mentor who can help her prepare to handle such intercultural issues and she needs to identify the skills she would need. She can contemplate on what skills she has and what she needs to do. One important part will be developing self-efficacy. The management of cultural intelligence requires to develop a high level of self-efficacy while dealing with unfamiliar cultures. One needs to adopt a high level of self-efficacy in such situations (Open Text Books, 2015).

To develop her self-efficacy Kalia should practice mindfulness, adaptability, and initiative. Kalia needs to have more mindfulness so she can understand what is going on around her. She will be in sync with her work environment and understand her employees better.  As it is found that leaders with mindfulness skills, observe and experience another person’s emotional state better that might guide that person’s response in a way which is beneficial to accomplishing goals (Yale University.010).

As she understands her employees better, she can be more adaptive. She would understand the cultural background of the employees and she would know how to handle each employee. The employees might throw new challenges and with adaptability, Kalia will be able to handle more challenges and changes.  

Kalia can take little more initiatives since she already knew that leaders have to solve intercultural issues and turn those into opportunities to be a better leader and make those employees more productive.

What suggestions do you have for Kalia in leading her staff to be a culturally intelligent team?

            Kalia needs to be the mentor or bring in a mentor for her team. Someone who has experience of working in such culturally diverse and in diverse age group. The mentor can help them understand and navigate through the work situation.

            Kalia should lead from the front and set examples for her employees. She needs to ask employees to be more observant so that they can learn more about each other. The employees should actively listen to each other, so they can understand each other better. And more importantly, Kalia needs to make sure that the employees change their perspective and attitude. They should never think that someone will never understand him or her because he or she is from a different age group or different culture.


Saylor. (2012). Cultural Intelligence for Leaders. Saylor Academy: Creative Commons by-nc-sa 3.0.

Open Text Books, (October, 2015). Mindfulness and Self-Efficacy. Creative Commons-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License. Retrieved on Oct. 3rd, 2018, from

Yale University (July, 2010). Emotional Intelligence and Leadership. Retrieved from:

How would you react if none of the plans you made turned out the way they were supposed to?

Identify one goal you have (i.e., “My goal is to…”). This can be related to your job, your family, your finances, starting a new business, purchasing a new car—anything you would like to gain in the future. Under your stated goal, write down five things you plan to do to achieve this goal. Next, have two people (e.g., family, friends, peers) identify five things they think you can do to accomplish this goal. Lastly, compare what you have written down to achieve your goal as well as what others have written and respond to the following questions:

  1. How would you react if none of the plans you made turned out the way they were supposed to?
  2. What if, in the middle of working toward your goal, the goal changed?
  3. If you reached your goal exactly as you planned it, what would you have learned about yourself?
  4. What type of life do you think you would lead if everything went according to your plans?

My goal is to start my own business in very near future. If possible I would like to start by 2020 or 2021.

  1. Save as much money as possible while I have the job
  2. Learn as much as about the business I want to start
  3. Reading books to gain more knowledge
  4. Attending workshops to learn more and develop skill
  5. Getting partially started while keeping my full time job, so I can transition out in case everything works out per plan

How would you react if none of the plans you made turned out the way they were supposed to?

It depends on whether or not my goal has changed. Let us consider my goal is still the same.

In that case I would analyze which of my plans did not work out. And why those did not work out. I will contemplate on reasons and if I can do something to make those plans work. Say, I need a mentor who can help me with resources or sharing his own experience. In this case, I will try again but only after I have understood why my plans failed and I have taken necessary measures.

There could a second possible scenario – my plans did not work out I expected them to be but my original goal has changed. In this case I will use the knowledge or learnings I can salvage from all failures. Which plans failed and why they failed. And what needed to be done differently to make those plans work. All these learnings can help me in future with a new goal or in similar situation.

What if, in the middle of working toward your goal, the goal changed?

If the goal change in midway, then I need to analyze the situation and figure out the reason for the change. It is possible for example in my case the economy turned too bad and leaving my job has become risky. In that case I need to postpone my plan. Or if my goal changes to something bigger or better than first of all I will find out what should be next steps and how I can reach my new goal. Then I will need to contemplate on what I have already done if I can use those knowledge towards fulfilling my new goals. For example, someone wanted buy an used car now his goal is to buy a brand new car. He can still use what he has done so far such as saving up money or learning how to drive, things like that.

There is another possibility that the goal had to change because of some regulatory change or something so I needed a new goal. IF the change is really drastic, still I can plan out how I can reach the new goal and analyze and contemplate on if I could reuse any knowledge or anything that sort towards achieving new goal. The idea is to using what I have (including knowledge) in terms of resources in optimal way.

If you reached your goal exactly as you planned it, what would you have learned about yourself?

            Speaking from my life experience which including my work experience, nothing goes exactly planned. We always need contingent plan too to reach the same goal.

But, when I reach my goal, I will reflect on what I did to get there. How did my plans worked out, if anything did not go as I planned, what I learned from that situation and what I could do or will do in future to avoid such situation. If there is anything else I could have done or what I did, could I do anything differently to achieve same result.

If there was no failure in plans and every plan was executed as expected then my learning about myself would be, I had a good idea about my goal and how I could achieve that.

What type of life do you think you would lead if everything went according to your plans?

            Life is always an opportunity to learn and improvise. To be honest nothing goes according to my plans in real life. But in case everything went according to my plan, I would be happy and surprised too. My life would be interesting in a way that I will always try to think how to plan even better and if there is a better way of doing the same thing I am doing. And if I am so good with planning probably I will like to share that with my co-workers too and anyone else who is interested or could use some planning skill.

Discuss how emotional intelligence; mindfulness and mindlessness techniques impact self-efficacy.

Discuss how emotional intelligence; mindfulness and mindlessness techniques impact self-efficacy.

Mindfulness for a human being is being fully present and mindful about the surrounding, noticing what is going on without being overwhelmed or anxious with the details (Mindful Staff, 2014).

Self-efficacy is essentially an individual’s conviction about his or her capability. A person with self-efficacy would believe that s/he can accomplish the goal or task at hand (Cherry, 2018).

Mindfulness technique actually helps self-efficacy as being mindful help any individual see other perspectives along with his or her own.

In past few weeks, we have learned more about cultural intelligence, how we can develop better cultural intelligence and how and why it is essential to be better leaders in today’s world which are increasingly being globalized. Just going back to the topic of developing CQ and using it in life – it starts from acquiring knowledge about the people we interact with, their cultural background, paying attention to them. And if one is not being mindful, which is essentially being present or not letting the mind drift off into other thoughts is the first step to gather most out of any situation.

In any new or unfamiliar situation, a person who is mindful can develop cultural intelligence and bridge the gap between cultural differences. Mindfulness gives open-mindedness too, which helps to see self-efficacy too. Mindfulness helps see own perspective along with other’s perspective. One can see her / his own performance or behavior with respect to the goal, and that actually helps to work on areas where s/he needs improvement. The whole process to get to the goal gets accelerated.

Mindlessness is exactly opposite of mindfulness and works exactly with opposite effects. Mindlessness is being physically present but with a mind that is closed to the surroundings. Mindlessness can happen because of preconceived notions too, one with rigid perspectives has a limited understanding of any person or situations.

It is easy to understand that someone with mindlessness will not be good with cultural intelligence. Because s/he will not have the open mind which is required to understand the differences between cultures or gather information about the person from a different culture. So the impact is severely negative, mindlessness can make sure that there is no development in CQ. As a result, the impact will impact in achieving goals in the organization too. The team will be segregated with lower performance potential.

What role do emotions play in leadership and how does learning to develop an optimistic perspective of emotions benefit a leader? 

            Empathy is something great leaders have and they often understand other’s emotions. That is why they can understand the needs of the people, people feel understood and that is how leaders build a bond ( Brio,2013). Leaders often have this emotional intelligence, they understand how they are feeling and how others are feeling.

            I believe leaders can empathize and channel emotions in the right direction among employees so that they all develop self-efficacy. Emotions can play a role of a motivator too. Instead of focusing on negative hurdles, a leader should focus on the goal and the reward after achieving the goal. If the leader can develop an optimistic perspective and lead by example the employees will be greatly motivated and inspired. That will help them get to the goal sooner.

How does mindfulness help a leader focus on the performance and goals within the team?

            Mindfulness is an exercise that helps the leader to be aware of his surroundings, his team members and their perspectives and their performance and the goals. Being mindful means understanding each team members’ performance with respect to goals. So, the leader would understand where the team is doing well, and which areas need little bit more work to achieve the goals. Most importantly a mindful leader will understand each team member’s performance and help them develop self-efficacy to achieve the goals. Often team members come to leaders with impediments, a mindful leader can solve the issue quickly. Even if the team members do not come to the leader, the only way the leader can figure out that there is a potential issue by practicing mindfulness.  Sometime it might require leading by example or may be providing the team members with right resources which the team member would need to grow or achieve his or her goals.  

How can mindlessness lead to learned helplessness and how can these actions impact a leader’s performance?

            Mindlessness is being fixated on only one perspective or being close-minded. This type of closed-mindedness often leads leaders to learned helplessness. This mindlessness is an attitude or single-mindedness which does not allow the person to think outside the box or allows the person to explore possibilities, or be open to a different perspective or a different idea. One mindless leader often focuses on limitations, rather than focusing on alternate possibilities.

This leads to multiple failures, self-efficacy suffers and this whole cycle repeats itself, self- efficacy goes further down that leads to failure causing learned helplessness. The whole team under the leader suffers failure. The outcome and impact on performance are obvious – the leader does not achieve the goal, as a consequence, depending on the importance of the team or organization would suffer.   

References –

Retrieved on 9/30/18. Retrieved on

Cherry, K (August, 2018). Self Efficacy: Why Believing in Yourself Matters. Retrieved from

Brio, M ( December, 2013). Leadership is About Emotions. Retrieved from